يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّخِذُواْ بِطَانَةً مِّن دُونِكُمۡ لَا يَأۡلُونَكُمۡ خَبَالًا وَدُّواْ مَا عَنِتُّمۡ قَدۡ بَدَتِ ٱلۡبَغۡضَآءُ مِنۡ أَفۡوَٰهِهِمۡ وَمَا تُخۡفِى صُدُورُهُمۡ أَكۡبَرُۚ قَدۡ بَيَّنَّا لَكُمُ ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِۖ إِن كُنتُمۡ تَعۡقِلُونَ
Topics related to this Ayah
English – Mohsin Khan/Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali
O you who believe! Take not as (your) Bitânah (advisors, consultants, protectors, helpers, friends) those outside your religion (pagans, Jews, Christians, and hypocrites) since they will not fail to do their best to corrupt you. They desire to harm you severely. Hatred has already appeared from their mouths, but what their breasts conceal is far worse. Indeed We have made plain to you the Ayât (proofs, evidence, verses) if you understand.
English – Tafsir ibn kathir
The Prohibition of Taking Advisors From Among the Disbelievers
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ لَا تَتَّخِذُواْ بِطَانَةً مِّن دُونِكُمْ
O you who believe! Take not as (your) Bitanah those other than your own,
Allah forbids His believing servants from taking the hypocrites as advisors, so that the hypocrites do not have the opportunity to expose the secrets of the believers and their plans against their enemies. The hypocrites try their very best to confuse, oppose and harm the believers any way they can, and by using any wicked, evil means at their disposal. They wish the very worst and difficult conditions for the believers. Allah said,
لَا تَتَّخِذُواْ بِطَانَةً مِّن دُونِكُمْ
(Take not as (your) Bitanah those other than your own), in reference to taking followers of other religions as consultants and advisors, for advisors of a certain person have access to his most secret affairs.
Al-Bukhari and An-Nasa’i recorded that, Abu Sa`id said that the Messenger of Allah said,
مَا بَعَثَ اللهُ مِنْ نَبِيَ وَلَاا اسْتَخْلَفَ مِنْ خَلِيفَةٍ إِلاَّ كَانَتْ لَهُ بِطَانَتَانِ بِطَانَةٌ تَأْمُرُهُ بِالْخَيْرِ وَتَحُضُّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَبِطَانَةٌ تَأْمُرُهُ بِالسُّوءِ وَتَحُضُّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَالْمَعْصُومُ مَنْ عَصَمَ الله
Allah has not sent any Prophet nor was there any Khalifah but they have two types of advisors, one that commands him with righteousness and advises it, and another that commands him with evil and advises him with it. Only those whom Allah gives immunity are immune.
Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Ibn Abi Ad-Dahqanah said,
“Umar bin Al-Khattab was told, `There is young man here from the people of Hirah (in Iraq, who were Christians) who is a proficient scribe. Why do you not appoint him as a scribe?’
Umar said, `I would then be taking advisors from among the disbelievers.”‘
This Ayah and the story about Umar testify to the fact that Muslims are not allowed to use Ahl Adh-Dhimmah to be scribes in matters that affect the affairs of Muslims and expose their secrets, for they might convey these secrets to combatant disbelievers.
This is why Allah said,
لَا يَأْلُونَكُمْ خَبَالااً وَدُّواْ مَا عَنِتُّمْ
since they will not fail to do their best to corrupt you. They desire to harm you severely.
Allah then said,
قَدْ بَدَتِ الْبَغْضَاء مِنْ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَمَا تُخْفِي صُدُورُهُمْ أَكْبَرُ
Hatred has already appeared from their mouths, but what their breasts conceal is far worse.
meaning, enmity appears on their faces and in what they sometimes utter, as well as, the enmity they have against Islam and its people in their hearts.
Since this fact is apparent to every person who has sound comprehension, therefore,
قَدْ بَيَّنَّا لَكُمُ الايَاتِ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
Indeed We have made plain to you the Ayat if you understand.
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