Assalaamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakaatuh alhamdulillah we continue today learning about the prohibited matters in shaa’Allaah
وَلَا تَقۡرَبُواْ مَالَ ٱلۡيَتِيمِ إِلَّا بِٱلَّتِى هِىَ أَحۡسَنُ حَتَّىٰ يَبۡلُغَ أَشُدَّهُۥۖ وَأَوۡفُواْ ٱلۡكَيۡلَ وَٱلۡمِيزَانَ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِۖ لَا نُكَلِّفُ نَفۡسًا إِلَّا وُسۡعَهَاۖ وَإِذَا قُلۡتُمۡ فَٱعۡدِلُواْ وَلَوۡ كَانَ ذَا قُرۡبَىٰۖ وَبِعَهۡدِ ٱللَّهِ أَوۡفُواْۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ وَصَّىٰكُم بِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَذَكَّرُونَ
English – Mohsin Khan/Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali
“And come not near to the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he (or she) attains the age of full strength; and give full measure and full weight with justice. We burden not any person, but that which he can bear. And whenever you give your word (i.e. judge between men or give evidence), say the truth even if a near relative is concerned, and fulfil the Covenant of Allâh. This He commands you, that you may remember.
English – Tafsir ibn kathir
The Prohibition of Consuming the Orphan’s Property
وَلَا تَقْرَبُواْ مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ إِلاَّ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ أَشُدَّهُ
“And come not near to the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he (or she) attains the age of full strength;
Ata bin As-Sa’ib said that Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn Abbas said,
“When Allah revealed,
وَلَا تَقْرَبُواْ مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ إِلاَّ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ
(And come not near to the orphan’s property, except to improve it). and,
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ الْيَتَامَى ظُلْمًا
(Verily, those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans) (4:10) those who were guardians of orphans separated their food from the orphans’ food and their drink from their drink. When any of that food or drink remained, they used to keep it for the orphan until he or she ate it or it spoiled. This became difficult for the companions and they talked about it to the Messenger of Allah, and Allah sent down the Ayah,
وَيَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْيَتَـمَى قُلْ إِصْلَحٌ لَّهُمْ خَيْرٌ وَإِن تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَنُكُمْ
And they ask you about orphans. Say:”The best thing is to work honestly in their property, and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers.” (2:220)
Thereafter, they mixed their food and drink with food and drink of the orphans.”
Abu Dawud collected this statement.
حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ أَشُدَّهُ
(until he (or she) attains the age of full strength);
According to Ash-Sha`bi, Malik and several others among the Salaf,
refers to reaching the age of adolescence.
The Command to Give Full Measure and Full Weight with Justice
وَأَوْفُواْ الْكَيْلَ وَالْمِيزَانَ بِالْقِسْطِ
and give full measure and full weight with justice.
is a command to establish justice while giving and taking.
Allah has also warned against abandoning this commandment, when He said,
الَّذِينَ إِذَا اكْتَالُواْ عَلَى النَّاسِ يَسْتَوْفُونَ
وَإِذَا كَالُوهُمْ أَوْ وَّزَنُوهُمْ يُخْسِرُونَ
أَلا يَظُنُّ أُوْلَـيِكَ أَنَّهُمْ مَّبْعُوثُونَ
يَوْمَ يَقُومُ النَّاسُ لِرَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ
Woe to Al-Mutaffifin. Those who, when they have to receive by measure from men, demand full measure. And when they have to give by measure or weight to (other) men, give less than due. Do they not think that they will be resurrected (for reckoning). On a Great Day The Day when (all) mankind will stand before the Lord of all that exists. (83:1-6)
Allah destroyed an entire nation that was accustomed to giving less in weights and measures.
Allah said next,
لَا نُكَلِّفُ نَفْسًا إِلااَّ وُسْعَهَا
We burden not any person, but that which he can bear.
that is, whoever strives while pursuing his rights and giving other peoples’ full rights, then there is no sin on him if he commits an honest mistake after trying his best and striving to do what is right.
The Order for Just Testimony
وَإِذَا قُلْتُمْ فَاعْدِلُواْ وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَا قُرْبَى
And whenever you give your word, say the truth even if a near relative is concerned.
This is similar to His statement,
يَـأَيُّهَأ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُونُواْ قَوَّامِينَ للَّهِ شُهَدَاءَ بِالْقِسْطِ
O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah as just witnesses. (5:8)
And there is a similar Ayah in Surah An-Nisa’.
So Allah commands justice in action and statement, with both near relatives and distant relatives. Indeed, Allah orders justice for everyone at all times and in all situations.
Fulfilling the Covenant of Allah is an Obligation
Allah said next,
وَبِعَهْدِ اللّهِ أَوْفُواْ
and fulfill the Covenant of Allah.
Ibn Jarir commented,
“Allah commands:Fulfill Allah’s commandments that He has ordered you. You will do so when you obey Him in what He commanded, refrain from what He prohibited and abide by His Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger. This constitutes fulfilling the covenant of Allah.
ذَلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُم بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ
This He commands you, that you may remember.
Allah says here, that this is what He has ordered and commanded, and He stressed its importance for you,
(…that you may remember), that you may be advised and thus refrain from what you used to do before this.
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