Assalaamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakaatuh alhamdulillah may Allah bless you and grant us all an increase in knowledge allahumma aameen. Students are learning about the prohibitions in shaa’Allaah

Al-An’am 6:151
Arabic
قُلۡ تَعَالَوۡاْ أَتۡلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمۡ عَلَيۡكُمۡۖ أَلَّا تُشۡرِكُواْ بِهِۦ شَيۡئًاۖ وَبِٱلۡوَٰلِدَيۡنِ إِحۡسَٰنًاۖ وَلَا تَقۡتُلُوٓاْ أَوۡلَٰدَكُم مِّنۡ إِمۡلَٰقٍۖ نَّحۡنُ نَرۡزُقُكُمۡ وَإِيَّاهُمۡۖ وَلَا تَقۡرَبُواْ ٱلۡفَوَٰحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنۡهَا وَمَا بَطَنَۖ وَلَا تَقۡتُلُواْ ٱلنَّفۡسَ ٱلَّتِى حَرَّمَ ٱللَّهُ إِلَّا بِٱلۡحَقِّۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ وَصَّىٰكُم بِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَعۡقِلُونَ

Topics related to this Ayah
[Children] [Commandments] [Forbidden] [Guardianship] [Judgement] [Killing] [Parents] [Poverty] [Relatives]

English – Mohsin Khan/Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali
Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم): “Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Join not anything in worship with Him; be good and dutiful to your parents; kill not your children because of poverty – We provide sustenance for you and for them; come not near to Al-Fawâhish (shameful sins, illegal sexual intercourse) whether committed openly or secretly; and kill not anyone whom Allâh has forbidden, except for a just cause (according to Islâmic law). This He has commanded you that you may understand.

English – Footnote (Hilali)
See (V.29:45) and its footnote.

Sura 29 Ayah 45 note:

It is said by Ibn ‘Abbas and ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud [radhi-yAllahu ‘anhu]: If the Salat (prayer) of anyone does not prevent him from Al-Fahsha’ and Al-Munkar (all kinds of evil, illegal and sinful deeds), then his Salat (prayer) increases him in nothing but loss, and to be far away from his Lord (Allah). (Tafsir Al-Qurtubi)

See the footnotes of (V.13:28) and also (B) of (V.2:152).

Sura 13 Ayah 28 note:

The superiority of Dhikr Allah [Subhanahu wa Ta’ala] [remembering Allah (i.e. glorifying and praising Him)].

a) Narrated Abu Musa [radhi-yAllahu ‘anhu]: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “The example of the one who remembers (glorifies the Praises of) his Lord (Allah), in comparison to the one who does not remember (glorify the Praises of) his Lord, is that of a living creature compared to a dead one.” — [Sahih Al-Bukhari, 8/6407 (O.P.416)]

b) Narrated Abu Hurairah [radhi-yAllahu ‘anhu]: Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Whoever says, ‘Subhan Allahi wa bihamdihi,’ one hundred times a day, will be forgiven all his sins even if they were as much as the foam of the sea.”

[Sahih Al-Bukhari, 8/6405 (O.P.414)]

c) Narrated Abu Hurairah [radhi-yAllahu ‘anhu]: Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Whoever says, ‘La ilaha illallahu wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahul-mulku wa lahul-hamdu wa Huwa ‘ala kulli shai’in Qadir,’* one hundred times, will get the same reward as given for manumitting ten slaves; and one hundred good deeds will be written in his accounts, and one hundred sins will be deducted from his accounts, and it (his saying) will be a shield for him from Satan on that day till night, and nobody will be able to do a better deed except the one who does more than he.”

[Sahih Al-Bukhari, 8/6403 (O.P.412)]

  • None has the right to be worshipped but Allah (Alone) Who has no partner; to Him belongs the kingdom (of the universe), and for Him are all the praises, and He has the power to do everything.

Sura 2 Ayah 278 note:

a) Narrated ‘Aun bin Abu Juhaifah [radhi-yAllahu ‘anhu]: My father bought a slave who practised the profession of cupping. (My father broke the slave’s instruments of cupping.) I asked my father why he had done so. He replied, “The Prophet (ﷺ) forbade the acceptance of the price of a dog or blood, and also forbade the profession of tattooing, or getting tattooed and receiving or giving Riba, and cursed the picture-makers.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari, 3/2086 (O.P.299)]

b) Narrated Abu Juhaifah that he had bought a slave whose profession was cupping and then said: The Prophet (ﷺ) forbade taking the price of blood and the price of a dog and the earnings of a prostitute, and cursed the one who took or gave Riba, and the lady who tattooed others or got herself tattooed, and the picture-maker.

[Sahih Al-Bukhari, 7/5962 (O.P.845)].

English – Tafsir ibn kathir
Ten Commandments

Dawud Al-Awdy narrated that, Ash-Shabi said that, Alqamah said that Ibn Masud said,

“Whoever wishes to read the will and testament of the Messenger of Allah on which he placed his seal, let him read these Ayat,

قُلْ تَعَالَوْاْ أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ أَلاَّ تُشْرِكُواْ بِهِ شَيْيًا

Say:”Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from:Join not anything in worship with Him…”) until,
لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
(…so that you may have Taqwa.” (6:153)

In his Mustadrak, Al-Hakim recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

“In Surah Al-An`am, there are clear Ayat, and they are the Mother of the Book (the Qur’an).”

He then recited,

قُلْ تَعَالَوْاْ أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ

Say:”Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from…”

Al-Hakim said,

“Its chain is Sahih, and they did not record it.”

In his Mustadrak Al-Hakim also recorded that Ubadah bin As-Samit said,

“The Messenger of Allah said,

أَيُّكُمْ يُبَايِعُنِي عَلَى ثَلَث

Who among you will give me his pledge to do three things.

He then recited the Ayah,

قُلْ تَعَالَوْاْ أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ

Say:”Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from…” until the end of the Ayat.

He then said,

فَمَنْ وَفَى فَأَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللهِ وَمَنِ انْتَقَصَ مِنْهُنَّ شَيْيًا فَأَدْرَكَهُ اللهُ بِهِ فِي الدُّنْيَا كَانَتْ عُقُوبَتهُ وَمَنْ أَخَّرَ إِلَى الاْخِرَةِ فَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللهِ إِنْ شَاءَ عَذَّبَهُ وَإِنْ شَاءَ عَفَا عَنْه

Whoever fulfills (this pledge), then his reward will be with Allah, but whoever fell into shortcomings and Allah punishes him for it in this life, then that will be his recompense. Whoever Allah delays (his reckoning) until the Hereafter, then his matter is with Allah. If He wills, He will punish him, and if He wills, He will forgive him.”

Al-Hakim said, “Its chain is Sahih and they did not record it.”

As for the explanation of this Ayah, Allah said to His Prophet and Messenger Muhammad:

Say, O Muhammad, to those idolators who worshipped other than Allah, forbade what Allah provided them with and killed their children, following their opinions and the lures of the devils,’

قُلْ

Say, (to them),

تَعَالَوْاْ

Come, (come here, come close),

أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ

I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from.

meaning, I will inform you about what your Lord has forbidden for you in truth, not guessing or wishful thinking. Rather, it is revelation and an order from Him.
Shirk is Forbidden

Allah said,

أَلاَّ تُشْرِكُواْ بِهِ شَيْيًا

Join not anything in worship with Him;

this Allah has ordained, for He said at the end of the Ayah,
ذَلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُمْ بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
(This He has commanded you that you may understand).

In the the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Dharr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

أَتَانِي جِبْرِيلُ فَبَشَّرَنِي أَنَّهُ مَنْ مَاتَ لَا يُشْرِكُ بِاللهِ شَيْيًا مِنْ أُمَّتِكَ دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ

Jibril came to me and conveyed the good news that, “Whoever among your followers dies, worshipping none along with Allah, will enter Paradise.”

قُلْتُ وَإِنْ زَنَى وَإِنْ سَرَقَ

I said, “Even if he stole or committed illegal sexual intercourse!”

قَالَ وَإِنْ زَنَى وَإِنْ سَرَقَ

He said, “Even if he stole or committed illegal sexual intercourse.”

قُلْتُ وَإِنْ زَنَى وَإِنْ سَرَقَ

I said, “Even if he stole or committed illegal sexual intercourse!”

قَالَ وَإِنْ زَنَى وَإِنْ سَرَقَ

He said, “Even if he stole or committed illegal sexual intercourse.”

قُلْت وَإِنْ زَنَى وَإِنْ سَرَقَ

I said, “Even if he stole or committed illegal sexual intercourse!”

قَالَ وَإِنْ زَنَى وَإِنْ سَرَقَ وَإِنْ شَرِبَ الْخَمْر

He said, “Even if he stole or committed illegal sexual intercourse or even if drank alcohol.”

Some of the Musnad and Sunan compilers recorded that Abu Dharr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

يَقُولُ تَعَالَى يَا ابْنَ ادَمَ إِنَّكَ مَا دَعَوْتَنِي وَرَجَوْتَنِي فَإِنِّي أَغْفِرُ لَكَ عَلَى مَا كَانَ مِنْكَ وَلَا أُبَالِي وَلَوْ أَتَيْتَنِي بِقُرَابِ الاَْرْضِ خَطِييَةً أَتَيْتُكَ بِقُرَابِهَا مَغْفِرَةً مَا لَمْ تُشْرِكْ بِي شَيْيًا وَإِنْ أَخْطَأْتَ حَتَّى تَبْلُغَ خَطَاَياكَ عَنَانَ السَّمَاءِ ثُمَّ اسْتَغْفَرْتَنِي غَفَرْتُ لَك

Allah said, `O Son of Adam! As long as you supplicate to Me and hope of Me, I will forgive whatever you committed, and it will be easy for Me to do that. And even if you brought the earth’s fill of sins to Me, I will bring forth its fill of forgiveness, as long as you do not associate anything or anyone in worship with Me. And even if you err and your errors accumulate until they reach the boundaries of the sky and you then ask Me for forgiveness, I will forgive you.’

This subject is also mentioned in the Qur’an, for Allah said,

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَأءُ

Verily, Allah forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners (in worship) with Him, but He forgives whom He wills, sins other than that. (4:116)

Muslim recorded a Hadith in the Sahih that reads,

مَنْ مَاتَ لَا يُشْرِكُ بِاللهِ شَيْيًا دَخَلَ الْجَنَّـة

Whoever dies associating none with Allah will enter Paradise.

There are many Ayat and Hadiths on this subject.
The Order for Kindness to Parents

Allah said next,

وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا

be kind and dutiful to your parents;

meaning, Allah has commanded and ordered you to be kind to your parents.

Allah said in another Ayah,

وَقَضَى رَبُّكَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ إِيَّـهُ وَبِالْوَلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَـناً

And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents. (17:23)

Allah often mentions obeying Him and being dutiful to parents together.

Allah said,

وَوَصَّيْنَا الاِنْسَـنَ بِوَلِدَيْهِ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْناً عَلَى وَهْنٍ وَفِصَالُهُ فِى عَامَيْنِ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِى وَلِوَلِدَيْكَ إِلَىَّ الْمَصِيرُ

وَإِن جَـهَدَاكَ عَلَى أَن تُشْرِكَ بِى مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَ تُطِعْهُمَا وَصَـحِبْهُمَا فِى الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفاً وَاتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ مَنْ أَنَابَ إِلَىَّ ثُمَّ إِلَىَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّيُكُمْ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

Give thanks to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination. But if they (both) strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not; but behave with them in this world kindly, and follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance and in obedience. Then to Me will be your return, and I shall tell you what you used to do. (31:14-15)

Therefore, Allah ordered children to be dutiful and kind to their parents, even if they were idolators.

Allah also said,

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَـقَ بَنِى إِسْرءِيلَ لَا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلاَّ اللَّهَ وَبِالْوَلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا

And (remember) when We took a covenant from the Children of Israel, (saying):Worship none but Allah and be dutiful and kind to parents. (2:83)

There are several Ayat on this subject.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Ibn Mas`ud said,

“I asked Allah’s Messenger about which deed is the best. He said,

الصَّلَةُ عَلَى وَقْتِهَا

The prayer, when it is performed on time.

I said, `Then.’

He said,

بِرُّ الْوَالِدَيْن

Being dutiful to parents.

I asked, `Then.’

He said,

الْجِهَادُ فِي سَبِيلِ الله
Jihad in Allah’s cause.

Ibn Mas`ud said,

“The Messenger of Allah said these words to me, and had I asked him for more, he would have said more.”
Killing Children is Forbidden

Allah said,

وَلَا تَقْتُلُواْ أَوْلَادَكُم مِّنْ إمْلَقٍ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ

Kill not your children because of poverty, We shall provide sustenance for you and for them.

After Allah commanded kindness to parents and grandparents, He next ordered kindness to children and grandchildren. Allah said,
وَلَا تَقْتُلُواْ أَوْلَادَكُم مِّنْ إمْلَقٍ
(kill not your children because of poverty), because the idolators used to kill their children, obeying the lures of the devils. They used to bury their daughters alive for fear of shame, and sometimes kill their sons for fear of poverty.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abdullah bin Mas`ud said,

“I asked the Messenger of Allah, `Which sin is the biggest?’

He said,

أَنْ تَجْعَلَ للهِ نِدًّا وَهُوَ خَلَقَك

To call a rival for Allah, while He Alone created you.

I said, `Then what?’

He said,

أَنْ تَقْتُلَ وَلَدَكَ خَشْيَةَ أَنْ يَطْعَمَ مَعَك

To kill your son for fear that he might share your food.

I said, `Then what?’

He said,

أَنْ تُزَانِي حَلِيلَةَ جَارِك

To commit adultery with your neighbor’s wife.

Then the Messenger of Allah recited the Ayah,

وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَـهَا ءَاخَرَ وَلَا يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِى حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلاَّ بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا يَزْنُونَ

And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah, nor kill such person as Allah has forbidden, except for just cause, nor commit illegal sexual intercourse…” (25:68)

Allah’s statement,
مِّنْ إمْلَقٍ
(Because of Imlaq),

According to Ibn Abbas, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others,

refers to poverty.

The Ayah means, do not kill your children because you are poor.

Allah said in Surah Al-Isra’,
وَلَا تَقْتُلُواْ أَوْلادَكُمْ خَشْيَةَ إِمْلقٍ
(And do not kill your children for fear from Imlaq). (17:31) that is, do not kill your children for fear that you might become poor in the future. This is why Allah said,
نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُهُمْ وَإِيَّاكُم
(We shall provide sustenance for them and for you) (17:31) thus mentioning the provision of the children first, meaning, do not fear poverty because of feeding your children. Certainly, their provision is provided by Allah.

Allah said,
نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ
(We provide sustenance for you and for them), thus starting with parents, because this is the appropriate subject here and Allah knows.

Allah said next,

وَلَا تَقْرَبُواْ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ

Come not near Al-Fawahish (immoral sins) whether committed openly or secretly.

Allah said in a similar Ayah,

قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالاِثْمَ وَالْبَغْىَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَن تُشْرِكُواْ بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَـناً وَأَن تَقُولُواْ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Say:”(But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are Al-Fawahish (immoral sins) whether committed openly or secretly, sins (of all kinds), unrighteous oppression, joining partners (in worship) with Allah for which He has given no authority, and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge.” (7:33)

We also explained this meaning in the explanation of the Ayah,
وَذَرُواْ ظَاهِرَ الاِثْمِ وَبَاطِنَهُ
(Leave sin, open and secret), (6:120).

The Two Sahihs recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَاا أَحَدٌ أَغْيَرَ مِنَ اللهِ مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَلِكَ حَرَّمَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَن

None is more jealous than Allah. This is why He has forbidden the immoral sins committed openly or secretly.

Abdul-Malik bin Umayr said that Warrad narrated that Al-Mughirah said that Sa`d bin Ubadah said,

“If I see a man with my wife (committing adultery), I will kill him with the sword.”

When the matter came to the Messenger of Allah, he said,

أَتَعْجَبُونَ مِنْ غَيْرةِ سَعْدٍ فَوَاللهِ لَاَنَا أَغْيَرُ مِنْ سَعْدٍ وَاللهُ أَغْيَرُ مِنِّي مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَلِكَ حَرَّمَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَن

Do you wonder at Sad's jealousy By Allah, I am more jealous than Sad, and Allah is more jealous than I. This is why He has forbidden the immoral sins committed openly and in secret.

This Hadith is in the Two Sahihs.
The Prohibition of Unjustified Killing

Allah said,

وَلَا تَقْتُلُواْ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللّهُ إِلاَّ بِالْحَقِّ

And kill not anyone whom Allah has forbidden, except for a just cause (according to Islamic law).

This part of the Ayah emphasizes this prohibition in specific, although it is included in the immoral sins committed openly and in secret.

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَاا يَحِلُّ دَمُ امْرِىءٍ مُسْلِمٍ يَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَاا إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَأَنِّي رَسُولُ اللهِ إِلاَّ بِإِحْدَى ثَلَاثٍ الثَّيِّبُ الزَّانِي وَالنَّفْسُ بِالنَّفْسِ وَالتَّارِكُ لِدِينِهِ الْمُفَارِقُ لِلْجَمَاعَة

The blood of a Muslim person who testifies that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah is prohibited, except for three offenses:a married person who commits illegal sexual intercourse, life for life, and whoever reverts from the religion and abandons the Jama`ah (the community of faithful believers).

There is a prohibition, a warning and a threat against killing the Mu`ahid, i.e., non-Muslims who have a treaty of peace with Muslims.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Prophet said,

مَنْ قَتَلَ مُعَاهِدًا لَمْ يَرَحْ رَايِحَةَ الْجَنَّةِ وَإِنَّ رِيحَهَا لَيُوجَدُ مِنْ مَسِيرَةِ أَرْبَعِينَ عَامًّا

Whoever killed a person having a treaty of protection with Muslims, shall not smell the scent of Paradise, though its scent is perceived from a distance of forty years.

Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said,

مَنْ قَتَلَ مُعَاهِدًا لَهُ ذِمَّةُ اللهِ وَذِمَّةُ رَسُولِهِ فَقَدْ أَخْفَرَ بِذِمَّةِ اللهِ فَلَ يَرَحْ رَايِحَةَ الْجَنَّةِ وَإِنَّ رِيحَهَا لَيُوجَدُ مِنْ مَسِيرَةِ سَبْعِينَ خَرِيفًا

Whoever killed a person having a treaty of protection with the Muslims, and who enjoys the guarantee of Allah and His Messenger, he will have spoiled the guarantee of Allah (for him). He shall not smell the scent of Paradise though its smell is perceived from a distance of seventy years.

Ibn Majah and At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith, and At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.”

Allah’s statement,

ذَلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُمْ بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

This He has commanded you that you may understand.

means, this is what He has commanded you that you may comprehend His commandments and prohibitions

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